Lebanon’s mountainous and rocky terrain is composed primarily of limestone, which creates exciting opportunities for caving. There are over 400 caves, caverns, and sinkholes scattered about the country, some deeper than others, allowing expert spelunkers to cave dive as well as casual tourists to explore.
Most caves are found in the Mount Lebanon region, stretching north and south along the center of the country. The most popular caves among tourists are the Jeita Grotto, with its huge caverns and underground lakes, and the enormous and intricate Afqa Grotto, source of the Adonis River, where legend has it Adonis and Aphrodite exchanged their first kiss.
For the more adventurous tourist and experienced speleologist, there are many other cave-diving options that require guides and special equipment. The Roueiss Grotto, for example, is a five-kilometer labyrinthine cave with an underground lake, large halls, and unique crystalline formations.
Lebanon is also home to stunning vertical caves known as sinkholes.They are some of the deepest in the Middle East and can be explored using ropes and climbing equipment, rappelling down into the hole and then climbing back up. Lebanon’s largest sinkholes are concentrated in the northern Mount Lebanon region, especially near Laqlouq and Tannourine.